7 types of BiometricsAngela Anyanwu
The need for Biometrics has made us understand that Every human being has distinguishing physical and behavioral qualities that set them apart from everyone else in the world. The fingerprint, which is a physical characteristic, is the first and most common item that comes to mind when discussing distinct features. However, there are some features that are more behavioral in nature, such as how we speak, how we type on a keyboard, how we sign our name, and so on.
These qualities are used together to identify an individual with an acceptable level of confidence, and they can significantly increase security.
Consider this: passwords, PINs, smart keys, smart cards, and other kinds of authentication are commonly used, but they have limitations and risks. Passwords and PINs, for example, can be quickly forgotten, difficult to remember, or stolen. Smart keys are easily misplaced or copied. Magnetic strip smart cards can be forged.
Biometrics or biological features, on the other hand, cannot be stolen, forgotten, or misplaced. As a result, as compared to older approaches, they give a considerably more secure and reliable means to verify an individual.
How Do We Interpret Various Biometrics?
To employ biometrics, they must first be translated to a format that an authentication system can understand. A biometric sensor is used to complete this activity.
A biometric sensor is a machine that converts a person’s biometric feature into a digital image. Light, temperature, speed, electrical capacity, and other forms of energies are all read or measured by the sensor in general.
To authenticate a person’s identification, the data is turned into an electric signal, which is then read by the authentication system.
You’ve used a biometric sensor if you’ve ever used your fingerprint or facial recognition to unlock your smartphone.
So, what are the types of biometrics?
While it is clear that biometric authentication has a distinct benefit over traditional techniques, there is still some uncertainty about which biometrics businesses should utilize. So let’s take a closer look at some of the most common biometrics.
- Fingerprints: Fingerprint recognition is commonly regarded as one of the most advanced and oldest methods of biometric identification. Fingerprints are simple to make and maybe validated by comparing the patterns’ distinctive loops, arches, and whorls. After the print is captured, powerful algorithms process the image to create a one-of-a-kind digital biometric template. To confirm or deny a match, the template is compared to new or existing scans.
- Voice Recognition: The sound generated is determined by the shape of a person’s vocal tract, which includes the nose, mouth, and larynx.The way a person communicates themselves behaviorally — movement changes, tone, pace, accent, and so on — is also unique to each individual. Nasal tone, basic frequency, inflection, and cadence are the most essential qualities used for speech authentication. A precise voiceprint is created by combining data from both physical and behavioral biometrics.
- Facial Recognition: The iris is the colorful part of the human eye that is shaped like a ring. It’s made up of multiple asymmetric thick thread-like formations if you look attentively. These thread-like structures are the muscles that help change the pupil’s shape and only let in the right quantity of light. Biometric authentication techniques can validate identity with amazing accuracy by analyzing the distinctive folds of these muscles. The addition of liveness detection, such as requiring the user to blink throughout the scan, offers an extra layer of accuracy and security.
- Retina Scan: Retinal scans use special near-infrared cameras to capture capillaries deep within the eye. The raw image is enhanced before being processed again as a biometric template for usage during both enrollment and verification.
- Keystroke Dynamics: Keystroke dynamics take advantage of the fact that humans type in a predictable pattern on a keyboard or keypad. Their keystroke rhythm can be utilized to create a biometric profile that can be used to recognize or authenticate him. To create a keystroke profile of a user, time spent to press each key, pause between key presses, letters typed per second/minute, and various other factors are taken into account. When combined with keystroke dynamics, password-based security can be improved by a factor of ten without adding any additional complexity.
- Ear Shape: Unlike many other biometric modalities that use specific cameras to gather measurements, ear shape biometrics uses special headphones and inaudible sound waves to measure the acoustics of the ear. Each earphone has a microphone that records sound waves as they bounce around in the ear canal, bouncing in different directions due to the ear canal’s varied curves. A biometric template is created from a digital copy of the ear shape for subsequent usage.
- DNA Matching: The use of DNA for identification has been around for a long time. It is also the only type of biometrics that can be used to trace familial ties. When it comes to missing persons, catastrophe victim identification, and possible human trafficking, DNA matching is very useful. Furthermore, DNA is the only biometric that can be “left behind” unintentionally, except fingerprints. Short Tandem Repeat sequences can be found in DNA extracted from hair, saliva, sperm, and other sources (STRs). By comparing DNA STRs to other STRs in a database, it is possible to validate identity.
Behavioral biometrics come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Behavioral biometrics are those that track behavioral patterns rather than (or in addition to) physical traits. Behavioral biometrics are used in a variety of ways.
ber of characters typed per minute, and so on. To strengthen security, keystroke patterns are used in conjunction with passwords and PINs.
Conclusions on the Various Types of Biometrics
Every person is distinct. Even identical twins have distinct personalities and physical characteristics. To validate identification and boost security, biometrics technology distinguishes unique qualities.
Secure identity verification is becoming easier, faster, and more precise than ever before thanks to the many various forms of biometrics. To discover more about our biometrics and authentication devices and software, contact SecureTech Nigeria.